Helderberg College Referencing Guide for Students
Academic assignments and projects require that students make use of citations and make reference to work of others authors. An assignment or essay that does not contain citations or has only a few citations, will be a cause of concern in academia. This is often an indication that the student has done insufficient reading for the assignment, or, worse, that the student has plagiarised material, intentionally or not. Students are therefore required by academic institutions and copyright law to acknowledge the ideas of others when they are used in assignments and papers. In most cases, this means stating which book or journal article is the source of a thought or an idea or quotation.
- To indicate to the reader, whose ideas you are using, apart from your own;
- To enable your reader to follow up on works you have used in your paper, if they so desire;
- To provide relevant and current information about a specific topic.
Therefore it is important to provide full and accurate information, including a full list of authors, the volume number of articles, the edition number of books, etc. The best approach would be to prepare the reference list as you are working on the assignment or project (i.e. while you are reading a particular text and you have all the bibliographic information at hand).
This Referencing Guide is intended to assist students in writing assignments, research assignments and papers. It should not be regarded as the final word on referencing; students should consult with lecturers in the different faculties about the exact requirements for each course.
The Referencing System consists of two elements. Both these elements need to be included in your academic work. Your paper should include in-text references or citations and a detailed reference list. These elements together are known as referencing.
In academic writing, different citation systems are used, depending on the field of study of the student. The two main systems in use at Helderberg College are:
FACULTY OF ARTS: The APA referencing system
FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND THEOLOGY: The Harvard referencing system
- In-text Referencing Versus Reference List
In-text referencing is when an idea or concept or thought is taken from another’s work which then forms part of your assignment/paper/essay. Indicate the author’s surnameand the date of publication where the idea was taken from.
A reference list, lists all the works cited in the main text and attached at the end of a paper/assignment or project. And no author is listed if the work is not cited in the text and vice-versa.
- In-Text reference/CitationVersus Quotation
A citation is different from a quotation.
When an author’s work is cited in your own words, simply refer to it, normally by using the author’s surname and date, this is a citation/in-text reference.
When another author’s work is quoted using the writer’s actual words in your assignment or paper it is a quotation. Such a work should be marked with quotation marks or other special formatting such as indenting when the quotation exceeds forty words.
- Reference List Versus Bibliography
A reference list provides full information about the list of books that are cited in the assignment.
A bibliography is a list of works dealing with a particular subject, or written by a particular author. This does not have to be attached to a paper or assignment.
- FACULTY OF ARTS: APA REFERENCE GUIDE
APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, second printing.
Referencing consists of two elements, 1) in-text referencing, or citations, and 2)a list of references at the end of the paper.
When using APA format, if you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make in-text reference. Follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author’s surname and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
Summary or Paraphrase
If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required).
According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.
APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).
A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word “and” between the authors’ names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses.
Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports… (Wegener & Petty, 1994).
A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source.
(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993)
In subsequent citations, only use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” in the signal phrase or in parentheses.
(Kernis et al., 1993)
In et al., et should not be followed by a period.
Six or More Authors: Use the first author’s name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in parentheses.
Harris et al. (2001) argued…(Harris et al., 2001).
Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.
A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers (“Using APA,” 2001).
Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.
According to the American Psychological Association (2000),…
If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.
First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2000)
Second citation: (MADD, 2000).
Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list, separated by a semi-colon.
(Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983)
If possible, cite an electronic source the same as any other source by using the author-date style.
Kenneth (2000) explained…
Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation “n.d.” (for “no date”).
Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring (“Tutoring and APA,” n.d.).
Students from the Faculty of Arts are reminded once again that they should consult with their lecturers with regard to any changes or examples which are not given in this guided.
If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by “p.”). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author’s last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses. Use any one of the following examples:
According to Jones (1998), “Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when writing for the first time” (p. 199).
Jones (1998) found “students often had difficulty using APA style” (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?
She stated, “Students often had difficulty using APA style” (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.
Place direct quotations longer than forty words in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 5cm from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 5cm from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.
Jones’s (1998) study found the following:
Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)
A reference list is defined as a list of resources actually used and cited by you, the writer, in any assignment, essay or course paper.
The references in this list provide the information that is necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text. The reference list should always start on a new page.
- The reference list begins on a new page.
- All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation.
- Write the surname and initials for all authors of a particular work for up to and including seven authors. If the work has more than seven authors, list the first six authors and then use ellipses after the sixth author’s name. After the ellipses, list the last author’s name of the work.
- Reference list entries should be in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author of each work.
- For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.
- Present the journal title in full.
- Maintain the punctuation and capitalization that is used by the journal in its title.
For example: ReCALL not RECALL or Knowledge Management Research & Practice not Knowledge Management Research and Practice.
- Capitalize all major words in journal titles.
- When referring to books, chapters, articles, or Web pages, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns.
- Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals.
- Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections.
Please note: While the APA manual provides many examples of how to cite common types of sources, it does not provide rules on how to cite all types of sources. Therefore, if you have a source that APA does not include, APA suggests that you find the example that is most similar to your source and use that format. For more information, see page 193 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, sixth edition.
The details required, in order, are:
- Name(s) of author(s), editor(s) as (Eds), compiler(s) or the institution responsible
- Date of publication in parenthesis ( ).
- Title of publication and Subtitle if any (all titles must be italicised).
- Edition in parenthesis (if other than first).
- Page numbers preceded by the abbreviation for pages pp. contained within the edition parenthesis ( ).
- Place of publication (followed by a colon) :
- Publisher – when the author and publisher are identical, use the word Author as the name of the publisher.
The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.)
Surname first, followed by author’s initials.
Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10.
List by their last names and initials. Use the ampersand instead of “and.”
Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 1034- 1048.
Three to Seven Author
List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand(&).
Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Harlow, T., & Bach, J. S. (1993). There’s more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self- esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204.
More Than Seven Authors
List by surnames and initials; commas separate author names. After the sixth author’s name, use an ellipses in place of the author names. Then provide the final author name. There should be no more than seven names.
Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S. T., . . . Rubin, L. H. (2009). Web site usability for the blind and low-vision user.Technical Communication, 57, 323-335.
Organization as Author
American Psychological Association. (2003).
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.).(1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam- Webster.
NOTE: When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source’s title instead of an author’s name. Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate. For example, parenthetical citations of the source above would appear as follows: (Merriam-Webster’s, 1993).
Two or More Works by the Same Author
Use the author’s name for all entries and list the entries by the year (earliest comes first).
Berndt, T. J. (1981).
Berndt, T. J. (1999).
When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first.
Berndt, T. J. (1999). Friends’ influence on students’ adjustment to school. Educational Psychologist, 34, 15-28.
Berndt, T. J., & Keefe, K. (1995). Friends’ influence on adolescents’ adjustment to school. Child Development, 66, 1312-1329.
References that have the same first author and different second and/or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the second author, or the last name of the third if the first and second authors are the same.
Wegener, D. T., Kerr, N. L., Fleming, M. A., & Petty, R. E. (2000). Flexible corrections of juror judgments: Implications for jury instructions. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 6, 629-654.
Wegener, D. T., Petty, R. E., & Klein, D. J. (1994). Effects of mood on high elaboration attitude change: The mediating role of likelihood judgments. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 25-43.
APA style dictates that authors are named last name followed by initials; publication year goes between parentheses, followed by a period. The title of the article is in sentence-case, meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized.
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year).Title of article.Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.
Article in a Newspaper
Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style. Single pages take p., e.g., p. B2; multiple pages take pp., e.g., pp. B2, B4 or pp. C1, C3-C4.
Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A.
Surname, F. N. (Year).Title of dissertation.(Doctoral dissertation).Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order Number)
Article from an Online Periodical
Online articles follow the same guidelines for printed articles. Include all information the online host makes available, including an issue number in parentheses.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication).Title of article.Title of Online Periodical, volume number(issue number if available). Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/
Bernstein, M. (2002).10 tips on writing the living Web.A list apart: For people who make websites, 149. Retrieved from http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving.
When referencing a print article obtained from an online database (such as a database in the library), provide appropriate print citation information (formatted just like a “normal” print citation would be for that type of work). By providing this information, you allow people to retrieve the print version if they do not have access to the database from which you retrieved the article. You can also include the item number or accession number or database URL at the end, but the APA manual says that this is not required.
Electronic books may include books found on personal websites, databases, or even in audio form. Use the following format if the book you are using is only provided in a digital format or is difficult to find in print. If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use “Available from,” rather than “Retrieved from,” and point readers to where they can find it. For books available in print form and electronic form, include the publish date in parentheses after the author’s name.
De Huff, E. W. (n.d.). Taytay’s tales: Traditional Pueblo Indian tales. Retrieved from http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/dehuff/taytay/taytay.html
Davis, J. (n.d.). Familiar birdsongs of the Northwest. Available from http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/biblio?inkey=1-9780931686108-0
Writing an assignment, implies that you will do research in order to find other ideas about your topic, or supplement your own ideas with research works of experts in the field. When you write your assignment, you are required to give credit to the works you have referred to, in other words, to identify the work of another author by making reference to it —
both in the text of your assignment and in a list at the end of your assignment. This practice of acknowledging authors is known as referencing.
References must be provided whenever you use someone else’s opinions, theories, data or organisation of material. You need to reference information from books, articles, videos, computers, other print or electronic sources, and personal communications.
The Harvard Referencing System consists of two elements. Both these elements need to be included in your academic work. As mentioned in the Introduction, your paper should include in-text references or citations and a detailed reference list.
Students in the Faculty of Business and Faculty of Theology will make use of this system.
In-text referencing is used when you summarise or paraphrase information, or when you use quotations.
Summary or Paraphrase
Whenever you refer to someone else’s thoughts or ideas or work in your assignment or paper, you need to include the author’s name and the date of their work within your text at the point where you discuss their ideas. This is called citing the author’s work, e.g. the following sentence could be used in your assignment where you refer to ideas detailed in a book by Garth Jones….
It has been suggested that classical music can help to create a calm study environment in which students can focus on their work (Jones, 2011, p 199).
You may paraphrase an author’s words or ideas – restating them in your own words, but without altering their meaning or providing your own interpretation of them. The paraphrased version should correspond with the manner and style of the paraphraser and not the original author.
You may summarise – use your own words to present the key points of an author’s argument or ideas, without altering the meaning.
It is often difficult to write an abstract of a simple fact or to paraphrase a short excerpt of a text, because the text is so closely related to the author’s point of view. To avoid incorrect paraphrasing, it may be necessary, or even better to write a direct quotation.
If you insert a quotation with fewer than thirty words, it should be incorporated into your sentences without disrupting the flow of your paragraph, ending in a full stop. Use quotation marks and keep the same font size.
The church is not the only setting where the soul may be nurtured, as “the soul also finds
sustenance in more domestic settings, like the family home where customs and values have
created a spirit handed down over generations” (Jones 1998, p. 89).
Incorporating a quote as part of your sentence—author prominent
The church is not the only setting where the soul may be nurtured. As Jones (1998, p. 89)
suggests, “the soul also finds sustenance in more domestic settings, like the family home where customs and values have created a spirit handed down over generations”.
Long quotations have more than thirty words and should be introduced in your own words,
begin on a new line, be fully indented by default (i.e. 1.27 cm) from the left margin, and be in single line spacing. It is also useful to use a smaller font for the quotation, that is, change from size 12 to size 10.
Example of Paraphrasing:
Author’s original text
Biological time is not only scientifically important, but it also greatly affects the productivity and health of a nation. The cost to the nation’s health of working out of phase with our biological clocks is probably incalculable at present. In the short term, poor sleep, gastrointestinal problems, higher accident rate, and social problems are evident.
Rajaratnam, S., 2001, ‘Health in a 24-hr society’, Lancet, 358, pp. 999-1005.
An example of how citing is done:
Rajaratnam (2001, p. 1005) argues that, while the notion of biological time is of scientific importance, it is also economically and socially significant at a national level. He points to the health, productivity and social problems which may be attributed to individuals working ‘out of phase’ with their internal clocks.
Citing page numbers in-text
- It is essential that page numbers are used if you are directly quoting someone else’s words. Insert page numbers after the year, separated by a comma. When paraphrasing or summarising, page numbers may be also be included. Be guided by your faculty or department recommendations.
- If you refer to a lengthy work, page numbers might be useful to the reader. In this case the page numbers can be included in the in-text citation, separated from the year by a comma.
- Use the abbreviations p. for single page, and pp. for a page range, e.g. pp. 11-12.
A Work by a Single Author
Use the surname, date of publication and page number for in-text referencing.
In his conclusion, Rajaratnam (2001, p. 1005) points to the possible economic and social costs incurred by a nation, when individuals work ‘out of phase’ with their biological clocks.
A Work by Two Authors
In-text reference to more than one author should be ordered alphabetically and in the same way as you would with only one author. When quoting a book with more than one author in the text, use the word ‘and’ between the names; if the reference is in parentheses, use ‘&’ (the ampersand).
In order to avoid possible communication problems all procedures should be explained to the patient (Gardner & Sheldon, 1997, p. 40) …
Gardner and Sheldon (1997, p. 40) examine the problem …
A Work by Three to Five Authors
In referring to a work by three or more authors all the relevant names have to be given in the first reference to the work. In later references to this work only the first author’s name is stated, and the abbreviation ‘et al’ is used.
Your textual reference would read: (Henderson et al., 1998, p. 64). However do not use “et al” in your reference list.
…the traditionalist personality (Henderson, Riesmann, Denney & Glazer, 1998, p. 64) restrains him from doing …
A Work by Six or More Authors
In the Harvard referencing style, for more than five authors, follow the same guidelines as for five, as given above. When citing multiple authors, record them as they appear on the title or first page of the resource. Do not change the order.
Where the author(s) of a work is unknown, cite the sponsoring organisation, the newspaper name, or corporation in the place of the author. If the information is not published by an organisation, refer to its title in the text and insert the title into the Reference List, ignoring the other parts of the entry.
A recent study (South African Defence Force, 2006) suggests that …
Organisation as an Author
Use the title of the organisation in the place of the author. If an acronym or abbreviation is used, use that after the first entry.
The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) has a policy on removing
injured animals. The SPCA is permitted to enter a property at any time following a report of
complaint (SPCA ,2001).
Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses
Paraphrasing is essential here if you are going to cite the essence of what the authors all agree upon. Write the authors in alphabetical order according to the first author in each work. Separate entries by using semicolons, e.g.
Recent studies (Bradford 1992; Curtis 1983; Graham, 1997) agree that …
Citations for electronic sources still follow the year, date format, and a page number can be given if that is available, e.g.
Macroeconomics has been defined as … (Barro, 1997).
According to Barro (1997, p. 3), macroeconomics has been defined as ‘…’ .
- List of References
The Reference List refers to the full bibliographic details for each work you have used, or cited, which are then listed at the end of your paper. The reference list enables your lecturer to understand what information you have cited and to help them find the original work if they wish to. The reference list contains details of all the things you have cited in your piece of work, arranged alphabetically by author.
The list is arranged alphabetically according to the authors’ surnames. Where more than one work by a particular author has been used, such works should be arranged chronologically. The sequence of information will be as follows:
Place of publication:
Note that a period is used after each main section of the entry, except after the author’s surname. Examples of Reference List entries:
Barr, J. 2002. Biblical words for time.2nd ed. London: SCM. (SBT 33.)
Jones, G. 2011. Effective study methods: a social sciences guide. 3rd ed. London: Oxford University Press.
A sample paragraph and reference list of your essay could look like this:
While stakeholder theory has its origins in the commercial world, it has been used in and transferred into a socio-political context and in the public sector (Adams, 2003). Based on stakeholder theory Adams originally proposed a definition “those who can affect or are affected by the achievements of the firm’s objectives” (1984 p.24). According to Brown, White and Redding (1984) a definition of stakeholders can be very broad and could include, in the commercial setting, competitors, media and environmental activists.
Your Reference List would look like this:
Adams, D.J. 1984. Stakeholder analysis.2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Adams, D.J. 2003. Stakeholder analysis today.Royal Journal of Management, 42(7), pp.34-66.
Brown,G. White, G. and Redding.G. 1984. Modern management.[e-book] London:Redfern Press. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library <http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed 9 July 2012]
A book by single author
Rose, L. 1998.Crime and Punishment. London: Batsford.
A book by two authors
(Note the following: When quoting a book with more than one author in the text, use the word ‘and’ between the names; if the reference is in parentheses, use ‘&’.)
Silvermann, D F. and Probst. C D.2004.The active interview. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
In order to avoid possible communication problems all procedures should be explained to the patient (Silvermann&Probst, 2004, p. 40).
A book by three or more authors
Meyer, B S., Anderson, D P., Bohning, R H., & Fratana, D G, Jr. 2003. Introduction to plant physiology.New York: Van Nostrand.
A book by five or more authors
HENDERSON, R.S., SMITH, P.G., ROSSITER, I. & KING, P.Q. 1987. The tenets of moral philosophy. New York: Van Nostrand.
Organisation as an Author or Unknown Author and Unknown Date
In the reference list, both the long title and the acronym or initials must be included, for
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) 2001, Policy statement on
removal of animals at risk, Author, Pretoria.
Use the letters n.d. to indicate no date.
A book with an editor
Driver, E. and Broisen, A. (Editors). 2009. Child abuse. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan Education Ltd.
An article from a periodical – the journal has a volume number and an issue number:
- a) Kruger, J.P. 2008. Sexism in advertising. Communicare, 7(3):12-15, March 11.
- b) Klimoski, R. & Palmer, S. 2003. The ADA and the hiring process in organisations. Consulting psychology journal: practice and research, 45(2):10-36.
A newspaper article
Title of the newspaper in italics.
The day of the month follows the page reference.
The title of the newspaper is followed by a colon, unless the volume or issue number is known. Treat it like a magazine or journal.
Lamb, J. 2008. Should privatisation advance SAA in the year 1990.The Argus: 3 May 17.
A newspaper article with an anonymous article (no name of reporter/author)
Title of the newspaper in italics.
Give the correct title of the newspaper, e.g. The Argus (not only Argus).
The day of the month follows the page reference.
The title of newspaper is followed by a colon, unless the volume or issue is known. Treat like a magazine or journal.
New drug appears to sharply cut the risk of death from heart failure. 2003. The Washington post: A12. July 30.
In-text referencing will be as follows: (“New drug”, 1993:A12).
Published theses and dissertations
Author.Date.Title of article.Title: subtitle. Place: Academic institution. Degree.
Use the language of the dissertation, if the thesis is other than English.
- a) Potgieter, R.S. 1983. Die advertensiewese in Suid-Afrika: ‘n kritieseondersoek. Pretoria: (M Com-verhandeling).
- b) Almeida, D. M. 1990. Father’s participation of family work: consequences for father’s stress and father-child relations. British Columbia, Canada. University of Victoria.(MA-thesis).
The official name of the country is the entry element. Give the full name of the department. For in-text referencing, the date is sufficient. Sequence for reference list:
Correct name of country. Name of department. Date.Title. Place: Publisher.
South Africa. Department of Home Affairs. 1990. Guidelines for chairmen of publications committees. Pretoria: Government Printer.
Publisher is a Society
Author. Date. Title: sub-title. Place: Publisher.
Rowse, Mildred K., (ed.) 2005. The librarian’s guide to the use of AACR2.London: Library Association.
Author. Date (last updated). Title of website.[Online]. Available: URL (Internet address). [Date you accessed the site].
McKiernan, G. 2006. Project Aristotle(sm): automated categorisation of Web resources.[Online] Available: http://www.public.iastate.edu/~CYBERSTACKS/Aristotle.html [4 September 2006].
Electronic copy of a journal article retrieved from database
Bornman, W.C., 2003. Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78:443-449. Available from PsycArticles database: http://……. [Accessed on 23 October 2004].
The Harvard referencing system allows the use of footnotes. This system is used more often in the Faculty of Theology, but students are advised to consult with their lecturers about their preferences. Once you start with a certain system, you have to be consistent.
In this system, a small number (starting with one), or a letter of the alphabet, or another sign such as an asterisk (*) is placed at the end of a sentence where the reference should be. The number or sign is inserted after the period. At the bottom of the page, a “foot note” gives the information about the source. A Reference List is written at the end of the assignment or paper in the same manner as for other reference systems.
When using a computer there are helpful functions to enable you to do this automatically without having to enter the numbers yourself, so if you go back to add an extra reference the numbering will automatically adjust to take this into account.
A footnote should contain the following information, with the title of the book or work in italics and all other text in normal font:
Author initial and surname, Title, publisher name, place of publication, date, page number
For example a quote taken from a book by J. M. Coetzee would be referenced as follows:
“The boy turned away and did not reply.”
(See the bottom of the page for the information.)
Full details must be given in the footnote at the first mention of any work cited. Subsequent citations should be shortened, whenever possible, for example:
Author, page number.
Footnotes can be used for comments as well as for bibliographical references.
The following sources have been consulted for the compiling of this reference guide:
- Anglia Ruskin University. 2012. Guide to Harvard system of referencing. Retrieved from: anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm. [Accessed on 21 May 2012].
- Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderlund, L., &Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format of APA Referencing. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
[Accessed on 20 August 2012].
- Leeds University. 2011. Harvard Referencing System. Retrieved from: leedsmet.ac.uk/students/documents/Quote_Unquote.pdf – 2011-09-01. [Accessed on 20 Augusts 2012].
- Turabian, K.L. 1987. A Manual for Writers. 5th Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- University of Cape Town. 2012. Harvard Referencing Guide. Retrieved from: http://www2.lib.uct.ac.za/infolit/bibllinks.html. [Accessed on 20 August 2012].
 J.M. Coetzee, Life and Times of Michael K, Vintage, London, 1998, p.47
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